Research Proposal: Multi-Band 5G Wireless Antenna

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Summary

This research proposal is about 5G Patch Antenna which is the future of communication. In this proposal it is illustrated that the antenna, which is to be designed is simulated on CST software. This software has provided many solutions for the hindrances like bandwidth, directivity, propagation etc. The main objective in this research proposal is to provide some assistances in resolving the issues associated with previous generations.

Introduction

For prosperous future Technological advancement is the key. For many users, increase in speed is very important and new generations provide it. As fifth generation (5G) speed is a major chunk in innovation, but it is also related to smooth connectivity and commissioning. Although, 4G network not only provided mobile devices network but also in Smart Televisions, and Smart appliances. The fifth generation (5G) of mobile networks forecasts to bring the best possible solution for the bandwidth scarcity felt by the exponential growth of wireless devices and ever-increasing demand of mobile applications This innovation was not particularly designed to connect such a huge variety of devices, which can overwhelm the 4G Networking System.

The fifth generation (5G) cellular communication systems, probably be deployed by the year 2020, as it will be objected to provide high performance compared to 4G. Along with a 28 GHz bandwidth, 5G will also support all the existing networking frequencies. As 4G offers 100-300 Mb/s speed, 5G would offer more than 1 Gb/s at the same frequencies. Besides that, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and Internet of things (IoT) are one of the most futuristic wireless systems that 5G would connect speedily and efficiently. In this research proposal, a single microstrip patch antenna is proposed for fifth generation 5G communication. The proposed antenna will be designed to resonate at 28 GHz and has a low-profile structure.

The Problem Statement

To fulfill the requirements of the modern world, our technology has to keep up with it. In today’s era, data communication has become the backbone for progress. Fifth generation (5G) network for mobile communication emphasize on higher speed and larger spectrum, which is the foremost requirement for future communication networks. Efficient use of the limited as well as expensive radio-frequency spectrum is a tough job for IoT networks. Both IoT and LTE can be deployed in a small slice spectrum channel compared to 4G deployments. IoT can even be deployed in LTE spectrum 'guard bands' that sit in between LTE channels to prevent interference. That means IoT systems do not share spectrum resources with standard smartphone traffic.

Apparently, low-power networks offer better coverage for IoT devices located underground or deep inside buildings. The low-powered devices that run on these networks can also be much smaller than standard LTE devices, so they can be used in a wider variety of locations. Some estimates say IoT device modules can be as small as 1/6 the size of current modules. Power is another factor. Standard LTE connections use a lot of power which can be an issue for devices that must last for years on a single, small battery. Devices on networks with drastically limited bandwidth IoT cuts the data rate to 120 Kbit/s or lower — can run for much longer than can those that connect to full-power networks. With 5G, it takes less time for the signal to travel, which translates to low levels of latency. Pages will load much faster, allowing for a significantly greater immersive experience, particularly in the realms of VR and AR.

Aim and Objectives

The objectives of this project is to study, investigate, and provide solutions for some of the key challenges that will be faced in the deployment of the 5G cellular networks. The focus of this research project is the enhanced performance, reliability and energy efficiency. One of the defined challenges that the project aims to solve is the performance. In this research we will target one/some of these technologies to cover the use-cases of mission-critical machine type communications and massive machine-type communications. Another use-case of the 5G networks is the extended mobile broadband, gain or directivity. These use-cases require energy efficiency as well which is one of the main targets of the next-generation 5G networks. There are many techniques to achieve the energy efficiency of the network such as:

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  1. Design energy-efficient antenna that can resolve hindrances associated with 4th Generation wireless communication.
  2. Emphasizing on design that can help in increasing any of the attributes associated with effective transmission.

Scope/Significance of the Study

The fifth generation (5G) cellular communication systems, probably be deployed by the year 2020, as it will be objected to provide high performance compared to 4G. Along with a 28 GHz bandwidth, 5G will also support all the existing networking frequencies. As 4G offers 100-300 Mb/s speed, 5G would offer more than 1 Gb/s at the same frequencies. Besides that, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and Internet of things (IoT) are one of the most futuristic wireless systems that 5G would connect speedily and efficiently. In this research proposal, a single microstrip patch antenna is proposed for fifth generation 5G communication. To be proposed antenna will be designed to resonate at 28 GHz and has a low-profile structure.

Literature Review

In the past decades, we observed tremendous changes in communication technologies. From 1G to 4G, the area of telecommunication has seen a number of improvements like performance upgrades were developed. Earlier generation of mobile networks are different from each other due to their improved specifications. 5G technology is on its way to change the whole telecommunication history in near future. Looking back at the development of the wireless communication networks from 1G to 4G, which led the communication history to a new height.

The evolution in wireless communication is known as “generation”, which started from early 1980’s known as first generation 1G cellular wireless communication system. This generation was based on analog technology known as Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS). 1G had a channel capacity of 30 KHz and frequency band was 824-894 MHz. This generation used circuit switching and it was only designed for voice calls without data services. After first generation 1G, in 1990’s the 2G second generation mobile communication system was the first digital cellular system. This generation used two digital modulation schemes: TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). Three types of advancements in wireless communication system were 2G, 2.5G and 2.75G. These were the innovations done in the second generation. 2G had a speed of 64 kbps with bandwidth of 30 to 200 KHz. Next to 2G, 2.5G system uses packet switched and circuit switched domain and provided data rate up to 144 kbps.

The third generation 3G technology was introduced in 2000 which seemed more as earlier version of 4G. Packet Switching was the technique for data sending in 3G networks. For video chatting and for high-speed internet service, this network allows 15-20MHz bandwidth at a range of 2100MHz. The evolution of GSM was also a part of this generation. 3G, 3.5G and 3.75G were the innovations done in this generation. High-speed internet service, video chatting were the main features introduced in 3G. Global roaming was a new service also introduced.

In early 2011, fourth generation 4G technology was presented. 4G offered a downloading speed of 100Mbps to 1Gbps.This generation focused on additional HD mobile TV, gaming services, video calls and Smart Television. This generation included Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Wireless Broadband Access and Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB). The innovations in 4G technologies are; LTE (Long-term evolution) and Wi-MAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access). Main advantage of 4G systems are that these are cheaper than previous generations as it does not require redesigning and reshaping structure, there is already space for advancement and addition in equipment that are present in 4G. 4G provides global mobility to support different services and devices.

5G is the fifth Generation of Mobile Technology; it will be in the field by year 2020. 5G technology has very high speed and bandwidth. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features, which makes 5G technology most powerful, and in huge demand in near future, as it provides high speed streaming. 5G technology includes, MP3 recording, video player, large phone memory, dialing speed, audio player and much more user never imagine. With the 5G communication, a new revolution is about to begin. Pico net and Bluetooth technology has made data sharing very easy and accessible by everyone who is connected with 5G.

Few years back, there were remarkable changes in the telecommunications industry. Different wireless communication technologies from 1G to 4G, all these technologies differ from each other based on four main aspects: radio access, data rates, bandwidth and switching schemes. Now all these previous generations expanded the way to explore the most advance cellular technology introduced ever. The whole history of wireless technology has changed just because the launch of 3G, 4G and 4G-LTE. A 4G system provides wireless access to users all the time and at much higher data rates compared to previous generations. LTE and LTE-Advance, main requirement specifications are: Higher average user throughput and Optimized coverage and deployment in local areas.

Besides all benefits from 4G, another revolutionized 5G (Fifth Generation) mobile network is seen as user-centric concept instead of operator and service-centric. The main focus of 5G is keep the end user on top of all. Error-control schemes, radio and modulation schemes are defined in 5G networks. Due to its high bandwidth the usage of cell phones is totally change, nobody can imagine these modernized changes. After the launch of 5G, a revolution is going to start in the whole mobile arena. Some modified schemes such as software defined radios, modulation and error control schemes are involved to enhance the end user terminal, to be the main focus of 5th generation mobile network. Through 5G mobile network terminal, it is possible to access different wireless technologies at the same time. In short, the evolution of wireless and cellular systems focusing on the four main key factors: radio access, data rates, bandwidth and switching schemes that leads the additional change in network architecture.

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