Political Systems and Regimes: The Absolutism
The absolutism is one of the types of rules used by Europeans, which was found in Europe in the Middle Ages. Royal governments weakened after religious wars between Christian sects, but returned again in the seventeenth century.The absolutism regained its power in Europe in the seventeenth century. French lawyer Jean Bodin is considered one of the most prominent advocates of the absolutism . He even said, 'sovereignty consists in giving laws to the people without their consent..'. The absolutism has many characteristics.
Firstly, the ruler or institution possesses absolute power, which enables it to issue laws and cancel them, declare wars and conclude agreements with other countries without the need to consult the people or any institution in the state. Secondly, the citizens ’loyalty to the king, so that the citizens do not try to overthrow the king or remove him from the government under any circumstances. Fourth: That the ruler does what he believes is in the interest of the citizens. This is done by enacting laws that are believed to be in the people's interest even without first consulting them with their consent.
There are many examples of absolutism in the twentieth century. First, Stalin ruled the Soviet Union until his death in 1953. Hitler also ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945 after losing World War II. Third: We have Mussolini who ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943. And Mao Zedong in China who ruled from 1949 to 1976. Then Kim Il-sung in North Korea who ruled from 1948 to 1994.
The absolutism system has some characteristics in common, even if they are in different time periods. First: That the ruler or the institution possesses absolute power in the state so that it can issue and repeal laws and also declare war on any other country. This characteristic of the absolutism it is found in the seventeenth century in many countries such as France in Louis XIV period. This characteristic is also found in all the absolutism system of the twentieth century such as Stalin, Hitler, Masulin Mao Zedongo, and Kim Il-sung.
Secondly, the citizens ’loyalty to the ruler or to the institution, and you find this in the seventeenth century, when some believed that the king’s authority came from God, and therefore their orders should not be disobeyed. This idea is present in the twentieth century in the North Korean regime, where many people believe that Kim Il-sung has absolute capabilities, some even believed that he is a god. The most common feature among absolutist regimes in all times and centuries is the lack of participation of the people or any popular institution in the decisions of the state and its confinement to the hands of the ruler or one institution.
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