Investigating the Problem and Solution of Water Pollution

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Water exists as a basis for survival and it constitutes a greater part of our planet. If our entire water system gets polluted and or depleted, our earth will eventually become empty of living creatures. Water pollutions are mainly caused by human impacts on the environment, but some natural occurrences will sometimes cause pollution. In general terms, it's the contamination of water sources by substances which makes it unsafe for use. Our water system is so vast and exposed in a way that all forms of pollution will eventually make their way into it. Water is a universal solvent, and therefore can allow all forms of pollutants to dissolve in them. Here I will write about problem and solution of water pollution, this essay consists of few paragraphs which reveal the issue of water pollution and what can be done with it. 

Water Pollution: Problem, Solution and Effects

The current nature of our polluted water proofs threats to the wellbeing of the Earth, as well as lives in it. But with the consistent increase in population growths, this is expected to pose much severe health risks in times to come. Population growth has both straight and secondary impacts on water quality. This actually stems from the effect of population on agricultural and industrial production. High population growth rate is tagged along with an increase in waste generation, which is also a threatening remark to clean water.

Concentration of industries near our waterbodies serves a serious threat to clean water and aquatic life. The dispense of hot water from the cooling engines of these industries which are located near water bodies, do not just poison our water bodies but destroys life in them as well. This activity increases the temperature of the water, which in turn lowers the metabolism rate of the organisms in the waters. Oxygen demands get increased, and some eventually die.

The human activity of acquiring food in all its forms pollutes our water bodies. This includes forestry, crop cultivation, biomass making for fuel and livestock farming. There's a huge range on the severity to which agriculture is carried out. Therefore, the effect on our water bodies, are mostly those that results from agricultural change of the terrain. Some of these activities may include; loads of soil erosion, irrigation systems channeled to irrigate our farms etc. During erosion, chemicals from the farm (including nitrogen and phosphorus) can get leached and drained into our water tables which contaminates our water bodies.

The most heartbreaking of all is mining. The extraction of valuable minerals contaminates our water bodies in a much greater degree. This issue is very devastating, and destroying our earth as well as numerous life in it. The closing down of some water treatment plants in the country, actually boils up from the fact that, mining activities have threatened the quality of water, and in turn incurring high cost to water treatment. A raised amount of heavy metals contaminates our waters and worsen its quality. Although mining is good in economic terms, it's a worst nightmare in environmental and livelihood concerns. Challenges associated with mining, stem from pollution of, as well as competition for, ground and surface water. The dispense of effluent into water, which stems from the use of poisonous chemicals like cyanide among others, can yet seep into underground water or flow into other water bodies causing pollution. The waste from the leaching of heavy metals, pathing into our water bodies, causes pollution. The mineral endowments of most African countries are seen as more of a curse than a blessing.

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Global climate change's impact, may also decrease water quality, through the reduced dilution capacities of some river, resulting from more frequent and consistent drought, or even an increased pollutant loads that are usually carried into rivers due to changes in rainfall patterns.

The devastating nature of mining activities, poses numerous and serious challenges to both nature and man. The gravels and rocks displaced during river dredging for some precious minerals, interfere with the normal flow of the river. The diversion of river path as well as mining on the river beds follows a high level of siltation, which endangers the drying up of most rivers. Most definitely, there's also high cost incurred in an attempt to treat polluted water, due to the level of suspended loads in the river. There is also an effects of poor fishing harvest, because most of the fishes die out of these harsh conditions we provide in their environment.

Water pollution can result in the contamination of food chain. In each of the feeding stages, within the food chain, there is either a direct or indirect inclusion of water. Therefore, our polluted water sources imply a contaminated food, which poses serious health issues to us.

The feature of water as a universal solvent, presents many forms of infections, according to WHO, 80% of communicable diseases are transported by water. There's a straight connection between pollution and health. Health uncertainties associated with water pollution includes, lung disorder, dysentery, mental disorder, various forms of cancer and heart diseases. Bacterial, viral and parasitic infections spreads through polluted water and distracts our health. Water pollution also means lack of portable water for use. A polluted water system therefore means, high cost of the treatment of water and its limited supply in general.

The Urgency of Water Pollution and Its Solutions

The problems of water pollution vary in terms of its seriousness, geographical expanse and time scale. Small problems can be controlled by individuals, while more compounded problems need large scale master plan, from communities of various extent and sizes.

We must engage the general public in biodiversity issues, and educate them on some pressing situations threatening sustainability. Everyone should have knowledge on the physical environment we live in, our interactions with the environment, how our actions affect the environment, and also to be keen with sustainable culture. Intensive public education is advised, in all its forms, with an aim of making sustainability a culture. This as believed, can help in harmonizing our relationship with nature.

Population check strategies should be put in place to help curb the natural growth rates. All municipal waste should be collected at a location where it is managed and maintained to prevent breeds of diseases. Segregation of waste should also be influenced, where waste will be segregation into; organic waste (which can be converted into manures to feed the soil), plastic waste (which can however be recycled into other useful products), e-waste and possibly metal or recyclable waste. Then recycling of waste should be encouraged, and incentives should be given to recycling agencies to encourage it. Recycling waste can obviously provide employment. Therefore, local authorities or aid agencies could assist, by providing protective clothing, supervision, healthcare, as well as refuse handling and processing equipment. This as believed, can help in harmonizing our relationship with the environment. Also, polluter pays principle should be strictly imposed on point source pollution like industries, to reduce the rate at which the environment gets polluted.

In conclusion, water pollution is the problem that needs a solution. Most of man's activities contributes to water pollution and its associated effects are unbearable. Our actions and inactions can tell the survival of our generations. Therefore, maintaining our very own water (and our Earth) in a sustainable culture, is a call to duty and everyone is expected to be part of it.

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