Critical Evaluation Of The Different Stages Of Change In Work Practice Within The Laboratory
There 4 stages that needed to be taken when introducing a change in work practice within the laboratory or any other organisation. These are denial, anger, exploring, acceptance. Most of manager are using ADKAR model (awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement). ADKAR model was thought to be developed by Jeff Hiatt in 2003. (Hiatt, 2006) Denial: this is occur immediately after receiving the information. Laboratory staff might not accept the change due to the fact that, they might be ignorance about the change.
As a manager, this stage require lots of face to face communication to be able to proceed. Make them aware of the need for change and encourage them to rethink about the issue and if possible let them aware of the consequence. Anger: at this stage, staff are aware of the change but uncertain about it thus make staff more angry. This is the stage where manager would want to give up rather than looking for emotion and physical benefit of the change. Manager need to desire to support the staff and determine to participate fully in the change. Informal communication is the key to resolve this issue and allow more time for rethink on the change. (i) Exploring: Staff are ready to contribute positively to the change since everyone understand that change need to be executed. They will start to ask themselves what role can I play in this change and begin to see vison in it. Staff would bring their contribution to this change (i) (i)The above change curve showed that no progression at the initial stage of change could be seen and progression occur with time. (i)Acceptance: at this stage the staff have reached the agreement and willing to live with the change. Staff are ready and have the ability to implement the change and the change can now be reinforced so as to sustain the change. (i) at this point manager need to review the change either every three or six months or a year to measure the effectiveness of that change. Section B1. Detail the stages involved in the formal grievance procedure. Using an example, discuss what actions you could take to manage a grievance informally, to avoid initiation of a formal grievance. It is important to understand the definition of grievance. According to the definition provided in the HSEland video, grievance can be defined as a complaint which as employee has concerning his/her terms and conditions of employment relating to matters. The issues that causes grievances(Hse, 2004) include:
- Allocation of work tasks
- Granting of annual leave
- Granting of overtime
- Access to training
- Health and safety issues
- Acting up or disputing arrangements
- Resource issue
- Working relationships
Formal grievance procedure
Stage 1:Employee has to make complaint to the laboratory manager and ensure that a meeting is arranged within 7 working days with employee involved in the matter after the complaint has been received. It is important to advise the employee that a work colleague or a union representative has to be accompanied to the meeting. After 7 working days of the meeting, the employee has receive a letter or written document stating the decision outcome of the meeting. (Hse, 2004)
Stage 2: The matter will be proceeded to the senior management if unresolved at stage 1. This meeting must be arranged within 7 working days of receiving complaint to discuss more further and the employee has to be accompanied by his/her colleague. The decision need to be communicated to the employee in writing. (Hse, 2004)
Stage 3: If the matters still remain unresolved then human resources has to intervene. This meeting must be arranged within 7 working days of receiving complaint to discuss more further and the employee has to be accompanied by his/her colleague. The decision need to be communicated to the employee in writing. (Hse, 2004) Stage 4:At this stage unresolved matter can be referred to the third party. The third party include:
- Rights Commissioners: These commissioners deliver service as part of Labour Relations Commission (LRC) but they carryout their duties independently by investigating grievances on behalf of employee and they make decision based on their findings or give recommendation according to legislation that is appropriate with the case
- Labour Relations Commission: this was established in 1991 by the Industrial Relation Act 1990 to provide services to employers, employees and the trade union and also to promote the development and improvement of Irish Industrial relations Policies, Procedures and Practices.
- Labour Court: we could understand from the mission statement of this court that it was founded under the Industrial Relations Act 1946 to resolve industrial disputes and to provide determination of appeals relating to the matters of employment right based on the employment law through a fair and impartial arrangement. Before the labour court preceding here are five stages to cases and these include:
- Dispute need to be referred
- Arrangement need to be made for a labour court hearing
- The two parties have to lodge a written submission
- Before the court, hearing has to take place
- Finally court would then issue its recommendation/determination/decision
- Equality Tribunal: this is an independent and impartial body. This body investigate matter and make decision or mediation based on the legislation of equality. The Director or Equality Officers of the Equality Tribunal are in position to carry out this investigation, decision or mediation under the employment equality Acts 1998-2011(‘Equal Status Acts. pdf’, no date)(Tribunal and House, 2014)Resolving grievances informally. For example, John feel that he has more workload than other employee in his department which is assigned by his chief scientist Jennifer and make complain to the manager. Manager can resolved this issues informally through this process:
- Prepare: this is a very crucial step to take as an employer to resolve grievance. Use a face to face communication method or phone or email to arrange meeting with Jennifer who assign the workload in an informal way and ready to raise the issue or concern in a private location and provide adequate time to discuss/explore the issues the employee wishes to raise.
- Meet: ensure that you inform Jennifer that the meeting is an informal meeting in which your objective is to support by advising on a certain concern
- Explain and explore issues: give time for Jennifer to explain concerns. Manager should be open to making a positive response and remember to provide some instances that closely related to the employee concerns so as to understand the impact those concerns having on their role. Then explore the action to be taken on the issues by requesting from Jennifer the resolution she has towards the issues.
- Agree outcome: if Jennifer agree on the actions, advise her that there is an internal and external support such as workplace health and wellbeing and advise. It is important to note the key points of discussion/support arrangements/timescales and sent to the Jennifer for information.
- Record: the summary of the discussion, agreed actions and the outcome of the meeting has to be recorded. It is essential to share the outcome of this issue with John who raised the issue.
- Review: as a manager, it is your role to check with John if he feels that the issue has been fully resolved. If not fully resolved, explore other way to be considered in addressing any remaining concerns. Otherwise, try to let John aware of the alternative option available, that is formal grievance meeting and give an overview of that option. It is beneficial for both John and Jennifer if the grievance can be resolved without using the formal procedure.
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