Artificial Intelligece: History & Types

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ABSTRACT

Artificial Intelligece is referred as the branch of computer which mainly aims to create intelligent machines. it is something which can compare the human efficiency of working with those intelligent machines. Actually this all started with the single point thought of the classical philosophers who mainly aimed Artificial intelligence as to convert the process of human thinking as mechanical way of representation (manipulation of symbols).And this work concluded to the invention of computer with a digital programming in 1940s. these machines was based on the intellectual core of mathematical reasoning. Finally these ideas and inventions inspired scientists to make a dream about an electronic brain which can be comparable with human intelligence.

HISTORY

The history of AI started with so many difficulties . Scientists started to believe that to build machines comparable to human brain would take a generation for them .Scientists started the research on this project with the funds raised by the Government in millions of dollars. But there were several difficulties which came due to criticism of Sir Michael James Lighthill on this project. These limitations were: * Due to extreme Political pressure the US & British Government suddenly stopped the funding of this project and this years were referred as the “AI winter”. * Secondly the hardware limitaions also breaked the moral of the scientists for carrying on further research and this research wing stopped for next several years. The actual growth of AI was seen in the beginning of the 21st Century when the Hardware collection with powerfull machines came into existence .these all become possible with Japanese government who created new vision of the technology and inspired the government to relaunch the Ai project .

TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AI :REACTIVE MACHINES

The first and the most basic form of Artificial intelligence is this type.In this type it perceives its current /environment directly and gives impact as per its present situation. Logics developed in Reactive machines are not more wider spread i.e it can’t memorize the past activities or remember the works which it have performed even before short duration. That’s why it can’t create a vision of its past experience to enhace the present situation. By looking at its features we can say it is unidirectional or it focusses on single /specified area. Ex: IBM Deep blue(supercomputer in chess) Deep blue has the feature that it can predict the next moves of his own and his fellow competitor.it can guess the possible option of moves in those prediction and apply it efficiently. The only drawback is it does not store any of its past moves to use it or make prediction in its present game. So the conclusion came out of these machines can work appropriately for the present situation by having a view of things on what it sees around it.

AI :LIMITED MEMORY

Further on research leeding to evolution of AI came to develope machines which can fulfill the drawbacks of Reactive machines .In Limited memory it can store the past experiences/information of its done work to enhance its present work.it adds up those experiences to preprogrammed demonstrations of world. Now a days its applications are used in self driving cars which moniters the every running activities in front of it ,stores it for the future prediction . It have enough memory for all these work and can execute it appropriately at the time of need. Ex: Self Driving cars ,In these cars at first these programs remembers all the running activities like traffic signals,lane markings ,divider and vehicles running around it .then it apply these data at the time of lane changing /while overtaking . But again one drawback came into these machines is that they can’t stores these data permanently like humans for the further experiences i.e these machines can only store the data for its recent running avtivities but they cannot use as its personal experiences like a human brain does.

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