The Role Models in the Teaching Process for Children
Learning is the process that starts when the child is in the womb of the mother and continues throughout life until the individual exists. Mainly there are three models of learning that is Adult-Run Model, Children-Run Model and Community-of Learners Model. Although learning takes place in all three models but it works in different ways. All model’s motive is to make children competent and good learners but all perform different functions to achieve its goal. In the reading of Barbara Rogoff, she presents her views by saying that the process of learning works on the transformation of participation itself, and argues that people’s development is based on their understanding of the activities and functioning of their roles.
The first model of learning is the Adult-Run Model which works on an instructional model where Adults or teachers play an active role and holds power and authority to transmit knowledge into children. According to ‘’Cuban, 1984 and Greene, 1986’’ (as cited in Rogoff, B. 1994, P. 211). This kind of learning is also known as a receptacle model of learning or banking model of learning because children perform a very little role or passive role and stay as receivers. In contrast to this Dalli, C. (2012) mentions that teachers shared power with children and children had choices or agencies to choose the thing they want to do, Adult-Run Model is seen as a specific and traditional pattern of learning. In comparison to this in Children-Run Model, children play an active role and construct knowledge by exploring and discovering the things on their own with very less involvement of adults. In Adult-Run Model, adults have to be responsible and concerned about how the knowledge could be presented to children and motivate them to adopt and receive it. In contrast, Children-Run Model adults can just set up a learning environment so that they may learn naturally without influencing children to follow a particular pattern of learning and that’s why it is also termed as Pendulum Swing between One-Sided Models. Moreover, I studied in Adult-Run Model where transmission of knowledge is done by expert to learner where teachers teach the planned topic to all children with different IQ levels learning pattern was processedby teacher children doesn’t take any initiative in learning by themselves and had the mindset to mug up the things taught in class without finding any personal interest or exploring knowledge by their own. Whereas, if I compare to the Children-Run Model I found it distinct from Adult-Run Model because children explore by their own choices and interest naturally where they learn management, problem-solving, discoveries of ideas, learn in playful method with their peers, develop their personality without any hindrances from adults and teachers.
The third model is the Community of learners Model is based on a different philosophy as both the mature members and fewer members of the community are considered as active and collaborate together. It works on sharing endeavors and in a trusting environment by both children and adults as none of them is seen responsible for providing knowledge or performing a passive role. Children and adult work as a team play an active role by planning and executing the shared endeavors, Adults take up the responsibility by guiding children about the process and children learn to manage the learning by involving and exploring themselves. (Brown & Campione, 1990; Dewey, 1916; Newman, Griffin, & Cole, 1989; Silberman, 1970; Tharp & Gallimore, 1988; Wells, Chang, & Maher, 1990). Further relating it to Nimmo, J. (1998) I find that children are assumed as active contributors to community life from the very beginning and it’s important to give them such environment so that they may collaborate, and interact within the classroom and school. Moreover as A’oga Fa’a Samoa Teachers, Management, & COI Focus Group. (2005) speaks that the benefit was seen when a teacher involves in meaningful conversations with adults and children which updated her knowledge about children and his family and promoted learning such coordination between children, peers and adults lead to the endeavor, adults as well as sometimes children provide leadership which facilitates learning.
However, unlike Adult-Run Model and Children-Run Model, the Community of learners doesn’t work by following a particular symmetry but includes asymmetry of roles. These roles vary from person to person and community to community. The goal behind surrounding children with few adults is to constitute the community of learners around children and indulging them in performing significant activities that may be connected to the skills and values of adulthood. As in the community of learners, learning takes place through the participation of people in shared efforts, where everyone performs actively but by playing different roles in the socio-cultural activity. Also Tangaere, A. R. (2006) states that in Te Kohanga Reo collaboration and participation within whanau is considered important as it leads to success. By relating it with Grey, A. (2011) teachers can involve in professional dialogue and share their personal ideas and experiences on effective learning. In my view, nowadays models of learning is getting changed everywhere even in India I learned in an Adult-Run Model but now as I started my carrier as a teacher I observed that although the curriculum is planned but children can participate in performing activities with the guidance or directions suggested by teachers such as visiting and experimenting in laboratories for science, performing practical for computers, making models or project to facilitate and make learning more interesting and involving children to innovate and explore, which I relate to community of practice. Also by organizing meetings and seminars involvement of parents, teachers and students are maintained to make the learning more effective. Also I would like to connect it to the reading of Dalli, C. (2012) where Bette found that teachers play the role of a constant juggle for balance and its very important as it works on the juggle between flow of demands is obtained while working with group of children and also meeting personal needs of children.
In conclusion, I would say that the Community of Learner Model is best as it facilitates learning in the best way without burdening children and its reflections could be seen as a part of professional learning. I would strongly support it as its most suitable for Early childhood Education in New Zealand and focuses on guidance and participation without drawing hindrances from adults in the learning process. Also, I would like to relate it to Te Whariki as it is based on collaboration and achieving outcomes in the community of learners models teachers, children and parents collaborate together to achieve the outcomes.
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