Stds And Religious Values: Comparative Analysis

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Background

Almost 9 out every 10 people in world are linked to one of 5 major religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism. One of most common aspect in all five religion is sexual relation is only permitted between man and woman only through marriage. Marriage is an excellent mode of mutual relationship between spouses, provides ample opportunity for sex entertainment and together with religious attitude helps to abstain from sex outside marriage. Sex outside marriage is condemned in all five religions. There are religion which are followed by significantly less number of people, which allows multiple sex partners or does sexual relations with different people as part of religious ritual. Considering 9 out of 10 people follows the one of top five religion, the article is going to assume only sex between married couple is permitted in terms of religions values.

A non-scientific survey conducted in 2007 by condom-maker Durex measured promiscuity by a total number of sexual partners. The survey found Austrian men had the highest number of sex partners of males globally with 29. 3 sexual partners on average. New Zealand women had the highest number of sex partners for females in the world with an average of 20. 4 sexual partners. In all of the countries surveyed, except New Zealand, men reported more sexual partners than women. A 1994 study in the United States, which looked at the number of sexual partners in lifetime, found 20% of heterosexual men had only one partner, 55% had two to 20 partners, and 25% had more than 20 partners. More recent studies have reported similar numbers.

We therefore observe two complete opposing view on sexual morality. Religious view, where sex is limited to marriage between men and Woman, in contrast sex is bound or restricted in western societies.

Objective

The objective of this study is to compare STD number between religious societies and sexually open societies. Using the reports and article make sexual network analysis for two societies. Finally, determine does religious view of sex has any affect of number of sexually transmitted diseases

Method used

Three independent researches and one report is being analysed. The report is about religious view of sex and its effect of number of STD, three articles are researches are on sexually open society and its effect on health and STD. It is not possible to draw sexual network for religious societies as most people would not accept about extra marital relationships. Instead certain correction factors are used. If 4 independent studies with independent assumption guide towards same conclusion, it can assumed that the hypothesis is correct and is independent of assumption. Also as correction measures, number of STD in religious conservative countries would assumed to twice the number reported. Still if the number is significant less in per 10000 people, then we can conclude that hypothesis is true. If numbers are approximately equal, the hypothesis is assumed to be incorrect. If the number of STD varies with assumption, then the article would conclude that the hypothesis is undeterminable.

Strength of the report:

1. Based on real data over period of time

2. Based on researches done by different group of people. Likely to reduce biasness or cancel out biasness

3. Independent of assumptions as independent researches done with different set of assumptions, so result if likely that any outcome would be independent of initial assumptions.

4. Researches reports from reputed and relevant researches.

5. Accepted correcting factors were used to estimate more reliable number of STD is religious societies.

Criticism of Report

1. Actually network was not possible to be drawn.

2. Very hard to determine people where actual religious values are practiced. So, it is assumed that membership of religious places are sign of upholding religious values.

3. Underreport of sexual relationship and STD, so more assumptions were drawn.

4. Definition of religious values were taken of that 9 out of 10 people in world. Some religions sex is means of spirituality.

Reports and Article Analyzed :

1. Sexual health, risks, and experiences of New Zealand university Students: findings from a national cross-sectional study

Summary

This Article was written by Rebecca Psutka, Jennie Connor, Kimberly Cousins, Kypros Kypri on 7th September 2012, Volume 125 Number 1361 in “The New Zealand Medical Journal”. It is done on 8 NZ universities were invited to participate and students from 8 campuses of 6 universities were eventually included. Overall, 5770 randomly selected students were invited to participate in the 2009 survey. Out of which 57% were female and 43% were males. The study resulted that average sex partners for woman are around 18. The Study determined that implication of such sexual behaviour is that negative health impact and high sexually transmitted disease in New Zealand. This statement is in support NZ has a high prevalence of Chlamydia. According to New Zealand health department 1 out 2 woman suffer STD.

Conclusion

The prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in this population raises concern about the number of students at risk of sexually transmitted infections(STI) and unintended pregnancies.

Strength of the Article

Real data was used and participants were willing. No Assumptions were required to make. Dataset reflected the demography of New Zealand in terms of population distribution by gender, age, ethnicity.

Weakness of Article

Drawing inference on youth based on University going students only is not a reasonable reflection of society or youth, given only 13. 6% of adults has university degree in New Zealand.

Inference Drawn

From this report, it is see Sexual openness does create risk of STDs. It can safely be assumed that the sexual Network diagram is strong connected and we can find a component which is likely to connected 80% of population of New Zealand. Even if a person has one sexual partner, He or she is likely that disease to reach him by the network connectivity. Disease are infections are spread wide by the connected network.

2. Associated Risk Factors of STIs and Multiple Sexual Relationships among Youths in Malawi

Summary

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This Article was written by Wilson Chialepeh N, Sathiyasusuman A, and published in PLOSOne medical journey in August 6, 2015. The Malawi Demographic Health Survey 2010 data was used. Out of a sample of 2, 987 males and 9, 559 females aged 15–24 years, 2, 026 males and 6, 470 females were considered in the study. Chi square test and logistic regression techniques were performed. Analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. The results indicate that 1, 399 (69. 0%) males and 2, 290 (35. 4%) females reported multiple sexual partnerships (MSP).

Conclusion

Among 15–49 years adults in Malawi, 11% are infected with STIs especially HIV/AIDS and most of these infections (90%) are transmitted through heterosexual contact. It found that monogamous community in Lilongwe, have less than 2% STDS. Having more than one sexual partner increases the risk of STIs.

Strength Of study

Real data was used and participants were willing. No Assumptions were required to make. Dataset reflected the demography of New Zealand in terms of population distribution by gender, age, and ethnicity.

It also compared STD number between monogamous community of Lilongwe and parts of countries where MSP is prevalent. It served as a basis of comparison.

Weakness of Study

STD numbers are under reported and inaccurate data as people deny extra marital relation in conservative society.

Networking Information

STIs odds demonstrate the role of concurrent sexual partnerships in amplifying the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs within dense sexual networks. Empirical research has however identified the association between concurrent sexual partnerships and an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections including syphilis and gonorrhoea. STI spread is significantly reduced in disconnected network.

3. Sexual Partnership Patterns as a Behavioral Risk Factor For Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Summary

This article was Lawrence B. Finer, Jacqueline E. Darroch, Guttmacher Institute, Susheela Singh, Guttmacher Institute and was published in September 2, 1999 on Volume 31, issue 5 of Guttmacher Institute. The 1988 and 1995 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth and five rounds of the General Social Survey conducted from 1988 to 1996 are used to examine women's and men's numbers of recent sexual partners. Levels of direct risk for STDs (two or more partners in the past year) and the social and demographic correlates of multiple partnership are analyzed among women and men. In addition, women's indirect risk for STDs (their partners' involvement with other partners in the past year) is used to estimate their overall risk of STDs through multiple partnerships.

Results

Combining women's and men's partnership reports suggests that about 17 million women aged 15-44—34% of those sexually active in the past year—were at risk for STDs because of direct exposure to multiple partners (5. 4 million), indirect exposure (6. 3 million) or both direct and indirect exposure (5. 5 million). In all, 21% of women were at direct risk and 23% were at indirect risk. In comparison, among men aged 18-44, 24% were at direct risk for STDs and an unknown proportion were at indirect risk. Multivariate analyses indicated that unmarried individuals, women younger than 40 and men aged 20-29, blacks and women in the South were all at elevated risk for STDs because of multiple partnership. 13. 8% of men and woman are found to monogamous. Monogamous men and woman are least risk given that they have 7% percent lower STD. 18. 9 million US citizen reported to have STD.

Strength of Article

Real Data set was used. Study data had proper sample of population and represented the demography of US fairly in terms of gender, ethnicity and religious believe. Adjustment were made for any incorrect data.

Weakness of Article

Accuracy of data provided by participants is in question specially regarding number of sex partners.

Networking Information

The study reveal similar information as that of previous two studies done in this report. Monogamous relation valued community have significantly lowered than communities that value higher number of sex partners. The communities that higher sex number of sex partner on average are densely connected and as a result STDs spread profusely.

4. Abstinence, Marriage and Religions for the Prevention and Control of HIV Infection and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Summary

This report was on July 27, 2017 in Journey of Aids and clinical Research. This article was written by Mohammad Akram Randhawa* and Majed Gorayan Alrowaili, College of Medicine, Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia. 84% of world population belong to top five religion( this figure is of article published date, not the latest). Cochrane Database Systemic Review (2007), based on 30 electronic databases (e. g. CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, AIDSLINE, PsycINFO, etc. ) and meant for the assessment of the effects of abstinence-only programs for HIV prevention in high-income countries, indicates that abstinence-only interventions are ineffective in decreasing HIV risk among participants, comprising US youth.

The article defines the religious values for sex for different religions quoting scriptures of respective religion. Article than refers to‘Prevention Guidance’ by the Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) it is mentioned that a reliable way to avoid transmission of STDs and HIV is to abstain from oral, vaginal and anal sex (Absolute abstinence) or to be in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner (Relative abstinence)'. Screening for common STDs is recommended for persons intending to have mutually monogamous relationship.

Conclusion

The basic teachings about marriage and extra marital sex, that can help to control HIV infection and other STDs, are almost the same in all major religions of the world: Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism. The individuals and communities who follow these instructions religiously they benefit, and those who do not practice their chances to get HIV and other STDs are enhanced. Like a patient when comply the prescription of his doctor benefits and if doesn't would suffer. Therefore, there is an immense need to propagate the original words of the Lord, God and Allah Almighty pertaining to marriage and marital relationship for the best interest of the entire mankind.

Strength of the Article

Based On Data set of 30 independent data set, so reliability can be assumed. Quotes different scriptures thus reliable opinion about religious view.

Weakness of Article

Little or no analysis of information was done. Mostly presented opinion based on statistics, without deep analysis. Ignored religious of other religious, some religion have sex as spiritual exercise.

Inference Drawn

STD spreads through network of sexual activity. Best of prevent STD is to break the network or make it less connected. This is achieved by relative Abstinence by mode of marriage.

Conclusion

From the 4 independent studies and dataset it is can be concluded that religious values does decrease spread of STD. Saudi Arabia has average of 4. 2 per 100, 000 compared to 90. 2 per 100, 000 in New Zealand. Even if assume 1 out 5 (increasing by factor of 5, instead of 2)STD affected people in Saudi Arabia reported, still it is less than 25% of that of New Zealand. Similar stats are found in two different societies. Even in same country where religious values are practised and were western opinion is observed, similar contrast in number of STD between those two communities is seen.

Last two articles used data sets which used to several corrective methods to modify the obtained data to reflect true figures of STD. Despite all forms of correction, number of STDs is significantly less. The main reason found is STD spreads by network connectivity. The more the large connected component, the wider the spread of disease. Best prevention of STD is to make the graph of sexual network disconnected component. This is achieved by practising religious values.

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Stds And Religious Values: Comparative Analysis [Internet]. WritingBros. 2021 Jan 12 [cited 2024 Jun 22]. Available from: https://writingbros.com/essay-examples/the-relation-between-sexually-transmitted-diseases-and-religious-values-comparison-and-analysis-of-studies/
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