The Correlation of Type 2 Diabetes and Parasitosis

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is endocrine and metabolic disorder, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia [1]. It has attracted much caution, due to high incidence, mortality and inescapable complications [1-5]. Globally, T2DM represents approximately 90% of diabetes in adults [1], in addition, the number of T2DM patients was rising over the last years, with more than 500 million prevalent in 2018, which will likely to increase in coming years, especially in countries with low-income [2]. Notably, T2DM has linked to significant mortality and lower quality of life [3]. Besides the generalized immunity weakness and reduction in T-cell response [4], T2DM accompanied by humoral immunity disorders, innate immunity deregulation [5], impairment of multiple organs [3] and gut microbiota alterations [1]. Because of short and long-term consequences, Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can be at higher risk for infections, and the risk is again increased by poorly controlled diabetes.

Urogenital and intestinal parasitosis is heterogeneous groups of infectious diseases, still a major public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical rural areas of developing countries [6-10]; since they have high morbidity and case fatality rate, and endemic in many countries [6,8,10-14]. As well, there are widely spread and connected to immunity weakness, lack of health education, poverty and inadequate hygiene [6, 8]. A.lumbricoides, S.haematobium, T.trichiura, hookworm and E.histolytica comprise the majorities of the predominant causes of these illnesses [7, 9,10]. Worldwide, Schistosomiasis is responsible for 240 million infected people [15,16]. In 2012, 250 million world population requires preventive therapy against Schistosomiasis [17]. Notably, IPIs affects 3.5 billion people globally and 450 million people were sick due to intestinal parasitic infections [8]. The pathology of intestinal and urogenital parasites generally depends on the immunological status of infected individuals. Clinically, there are responsible for various disorders ranging from slight discomfort to serious conditions such as diarrhea, growth retardation and malnutrition [6,7,9,10,17].

In very young as well as immune-compromised people, they can be extremely dangerous leading to serious outcomes [ 6,8-11, 17, 18]. Every year, Schistosomiasis is responsible for 24067 [19] to 200 000 deaths [20,21] in addition to 1.496 millions of years lived with disability (YLD) globally [11,12]. Likewise, the intestinal parasitic infections linked to around 39 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) [14, 22]. Considering all these findings, it is relevant to know regarding the link between T2DM and parasitic infections. In addition, a few data existed yet, therefore we conducted matched case-control study to assess the relation of T2DM with urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections, explore the risk factors associated with the development of disease's, and evaluate the intensities of helminthiasis as well as its influence on the level of blood glucose.

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