Psychology of Abnormality and Mental Disorders
The motive of this essay is to debate abnormality and the effect of hereditary and environment factors on psychological disorder, which is schizophrenia and depression. In debating this, methods of diagnosis and cultural effects will be scrutinizing. Abnormality can be interpreted in many ways. The first interpretation of abnormality is the deviation from the ideal mental health. This implies that psychologist consider the distinct element of mental illness. In respect to this analysis, people must be able to qualify for complete status before been regard as normal. In 1958, Johoda reviewed six distinct a person must possess before classified him/her normal, here are the six barometers for personal positive view. Precise, perception of reality and ability for growth and development. In other words, if some does not have these quality, then that means such person would be regarded as abnormal. With Johada point of view it is impossible to meet all these criteria outlined for the interpretation.
The other interpretation for abnormality is the violation of the social norm. In every culture, there are unique ways that they are been practised. Cultural differences are paramount, some culture will accept a specific practised while other culture will go against it for example, in the society of Zulus, delusional and piercing cry is normal but however in another culture it’s abnormal behaviour especially in western cultures. Nevertheless, the clampdown of this definition is that, what that has been accepted before could suddenly change over the period as well as personal behaviour could also have changed since people migrate from one location to the other and whatever culture that is been practise in that area the must respect the culture. Meanwhile, there is a saying that when you’re in room, you do as romans. Horford (1990 cited in Hayes, 1994) stipulated that when psychiatric doctor diagnose black patient in the UK as abnormal simply because of their culture, in this argument it was because they are ignorant of black people’s culture and this has mount to another problem of this definition.
Schizophrenia is a vigorous brain disorder and it can also be classified as disease of the mind. It affects about one percent of the population throughout the whole world. When schizophrenia is frisky, symptoms can include hallucinations, misconception, uneasy with thinking and concentration, and deprivation of incentive. Nevertheless, when these symptoms are dealt with, most people with schizophrenia will improve tremendously over the time. This is not the case in some part of Africa especially Nigeria where by the patient with schizophrenia suffers stigmatization, if the patient laugh too much, people will be like won’t you have your medication. In fact, there was a saying that is commonly used for them particularly in Nigeria that ‘’no matter how you treat schizophrenia patient, they always have their moment of reoccurrence. In other words, depression is defined as a prevalent and significant medical illness that can have negativity effect on how you feel the way you think and how you act. The symptoms are sadness, suicidal thought, loss of interest, inability to cope with daily task, loss of appetite, and lack of sleep or sleeping too much. Although this disorder is treatable.
Depression is defined as a low in mood that can linger for a long time, and this can affect the patient’s everyday life. Depression is also classified as being low spirits. although it doesn’t stop the patient living their normal life but rather it makes everything harder to do and seem worthwhile. Depression can be severe, depression can be life-threatening, it usually makes the patients feel suicidal or simply give up the will to live. (Law, 2012). Irons point of view (2014) there are two different ways which can affect the way depression can change a person’s emotion tremendously. A person can feel decrease in positive emotion and an increase in negative emotions.
With all these traits that are defined using the statistical and diagnostic manual of mental disorder, (DSM-5) and international classification of diseases(ICD-10) were the mechanism that were used to detect all mental illness, and it is been used by health professional and psychology. The DSM was initially first published in 1952 whilst ICD-10 first perspective was in 1990. Invariably, both mechanisms have been modernised over the years. DSM-5 is used to collate and communicating precise mental health analysis problems. Meanwhile, ICD-10 is useful because it detects both the diseases and death. However, it could be debate that both DSM-5 and ICD-10 was proofed useful and fast in diagnose the disease. Psychiatric (Feldman, 1992) used the mechanism to diagnosed mental disorder, he used the DSM-5 to separate schizophrenia into four types. More so the DSM-5 detach those types as it has been very tedious to alter in between each model. The overthrown of DSM-5 and ICD-10 are reprove because hard drugs can also lead to mental disorder. Exceptional in culture behaviours can be categorised as a psychological disease as many society have different cultures.
It has also been criticised by Szasz (1961) stipulate that mental health illness was been misdiagnose as mental was not mental disease at all. Having said this, criticism, the DSM-5 and ICD-10 must be put into account of cultural difference when be review. Thus, this will help health care professionals in finding it easy when assessing patient, all these should be included gender, religion and culture as relating to previous DSM and ICD which fails to take a closer look of what was going on the patient’s life and given the appropriate right treatment. Having site all these critics, both the mechanism is the best in diagnosis all different kind of mental disorder.
Whether Heredity, environmental or genetic causes all these disorders, the nature of depression and schizophrenia will be explored. It was maintained by researchers that the Geneticists and twin studies have comparison virtue of two alternative measures of twin concordance: the pairwise and probandwise concordance rates. It is now very clear that the probandwise rate is preferred over the pairwise rate. In a recent review of schizophrenia twin studies, however, Torrey (1992) chose to analyse pairwise over probandwise rates. His analyses concluded that the monozygotic twin concordance for schizophrenia is feeble than what is widely accepted; hence, the enormity of the genetic contribution to schizophrenia has been overestimated. In this brief commentary, to review the comparison strengths and weaknesses of the pairwise and probandwise rates. It shows that Torrey’s analysis is based upon his incorrect use of information pairwise rates. Twin studies of schizophrenia continue to support the existence of a strong genetic impact on the development of schizophrenia.
Having said all these, the 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic genetic –co-twin pairs were used to calculate probandwise genetic corresponding. The population lifetime morbid risk for BPD (mania and depression or mania alone) was 0. 32%, which was approximated using Camberwell case register data (Camberwell is the old borough of London where Maudsley Hospital is located), as formally stipulated. 8 Similarly, Camberwell data provide a sexaveraged lifetime risk approximated for DSM-IV UPD of approximately 6% based on the analysis of the researchers. The brains of 232 patients with a case-note diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective disorder that died were measured, and were evaluate. From the sample, the brain that showed signs of the disease. The result is that out of the 232 patients, 41 patients with schizophrenia and 29 patients with affective disorder. It showed that the brains of the patients with schizophrenia were 6% lighter; the studies suggest that such expansion is lined with tissue loss in the temporal lobe. Those changes in schizophrenia were of a small level than those seen in a sample of brains.
Now one could see that depression and schizophrenia disorder will not be only cause by genetic but an environmental could also contribute or influence the cause of the disorder. It has been stipulated by researcher that, depression can be genesis of genetic factor if it runs in the family down to family tree, well this could be link with the present sufferer. The stumbling block about genetic issue is that, family could also evolve a nurturing firma for their offspring behaviour by going extra mile for them or rolling their offspring in a tissue paper for a very long time. Too much of dopamine can also be a vital contribution that cause schizophrenia. The side effect of antipsychotic medication can be a block to dopamine in the brain. Well, on the other hand, it is also argued that lack of serotonin cannot lead to depression, already depression has been treated by anti -depressant but its side effect on the other neurochemical could trigger depression apart from norepinephrine serotonin (seen in psychology diagrammed 2001). Then Van Praag et al. (1987) maintained that the work on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) had been a shamble and endorser that the connection in between biochemical feature and signs needs more exploring.
In conclusion, the remarkable of schizophrenia and depression has been explained, its physical and biology, it has on the patient suffering from it has also been explained in details. This essay also entails the fact that if the both disorder are nature or nurture, the characteristics of abnormalities was also taking into consideration. Meanwhile the big question is about their diagnostic mechanism if it is a right one for the job it claimed and the problem of the using the mechanism. The information provided by patients might be untrue sometimes to prevent the misdiagnose in my own opinion, I think through investigation must be in place.
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